Please see many of my research articles, available on Research Gate or by emailing me directly.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2021) Talk about Faith: how debate and conversation shape belief. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781108475990

Richardson, Peter, Mueller, Charles, and Stephen Pihlaja (2021). Cognitive Linguistics and Religious Language: An Introduction. New York: Routledge. ISBN: 9780367484613

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2018) Religious Talk Online: the evangelical discourse of Muslims, Christians, and atheists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781316661963

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2014) Antagonism on YouTube: Metaphor in Online Discourse. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN: 9781472566690

Pihlaja, Stephen, and Helen Ringrow (eds.) (under contract) The Routledge Handbook of Language and Religion. London: Routledge. 

Pihlaja, Stephen (ed.). (2021) Analysing Religious Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781108836135

Ringrow, Helen & Stephen Pihlaja (eds.). (2020) Contemporary Media Stylistics. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN: 9781350064096

Seargeant, Philip, Hewings, Ann, & Stephen Pihlaja (eds.). (2018) Routledge Handbook for English Language Studies. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN: 9781138913455

Pihlaja, Stephen. (ed.) (2017) Special Issue: Metaphor in Religion and Spirituality. Metaphor and the Social World 7/1: 1-4 (Introduction). DOI: 10.1075/msw.7.1

Allington, Daniel & Stephen Pihlaja. (2016) Special Issue Introduction: Interpretation in the Age of the Internet. Language & Literature 25/3: 201-210 (Introduction)DOI: 10.1177/0963947016652781

Pihlaja, Stephe. (under review) Abstraction in Storytelling. Narrative Inquiry. 

Pihlaja, Stephen, Whisker, Daniel, and Lisa Vickerage-Goddard. (under review) Categories in discourse about religious identity in Church of English primary education. Religion & Education.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (forthcoming) Swoldiers in the Swole Nation: YouTube Fitness Vlogs and the Performance of Mental Health, Strength, and Happiness on Social Media. In Lawrence, S. (ed.) Digital Wellness, Health and Fitness Influencers: Critical Perspectives on Digital Guru Media. London: Routledge. 

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2020). 
The style of online preachers. In Ringrow, Helen & Stephen Pihlaja (eds.). Contemporary Media Stylistics (pgs. 297–316). London: Bloomsbury.

Richardson, Peter, Pihlaja, Stephen, Nagashima, Miori, Wada, Masako, Watanabe, Makoto and Kheovichai, Baramee. (2019). Blasphemy and persecution: Positioning in an inter-religious discussion. Text & Talk, 40/1: 75-98. DOI: 10.1515/text-2019-2049

Richardson, Peter & Stephen Pihlaja. (2018) Contemporary Evangelical Christian Interpretations of the Jericho Massacre in the Context of Anti-Immigration and Anti-Muslim TrendsPostscripts, 9/1: 27-49. DOI: 10.1558/post.36984

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2018) Hey YouTube! Positioning the Viewer in Vlogs. In Page, R., Nørgaard, N., & Busse, B. Rethinking Language, Text and Context (pgs. 254-265). London: Routledge.

Pihlaja, Stephen & 
Naomi Thompson. (2018) “I love the Queen”: Positioning in young British Muslim discourse. Discourse, Context, & Media 20: 52-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.dcm.2017.08.002

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2017) More than 50 shades of grey: Creative content and copyright on social networking sites. Applied Linguistics Review. 8/2-3:213-228. DOI: 10.1515/applirev-2016-1036

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2017) 'When Noah built the ark...': metaphor and Biblical stories in Facebook preaching. Metaphor and the Social World 7/1: 88-105. DOI: 10.1075/msw.7.1.06pih

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2016) ‘What about the wolves?’: The use of scripture in YouTube arguments. Language & Literature 25/3: 226-238. DOI: 10.1177/0963947016652784

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2016) Expressing pleasure and avoiding engagement in online adult video comment sections. Language & Sexuality 5/1: 96-114. DOI: 10.1075/jls.5.1.04pih

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2014) 'Christians' and 'bad Christians': Categorization in atheist user talk on YouTube. Text & Talk 34/5: 623-639. DOI: 10.1515/text-2014-0020

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2013) Truck stops and fashion shows: A case study of the discursive construction of Evangelical Christian group identity on YouTube. In Herbert, D. and M. Gillespie. (eds.) Social Media and Religious Change (pgs. 165–184). Berlin: De Gruyter. ISBN: 9783110270488

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2013) ‘It’s all red ink’: the interpretation of Biblical metaphor among Evangelical Christian YouTube users. Language and Literature 22/2: 103–117. DOI: 10.1177/0963947013483996

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2011) Cops, popes, and garbage collectors: Metaphor and antagonism in an atheist/Christian YouTube video thread. Language@Internet, 8, article 1. Available online at: <>

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2011) ‘Are you religious or are you saved?’: Investigating membership categorisation in religious discussions on YouTube. Fieldwork in Religion 6/1: 27-46. DOI: 10.1558/firn.v6i1.47

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2010) The Pope of YouTube: Metaphor and Misunderstanding in Atheist-Christian YouTube Dialogue. The Journal of Inter-Religious Dialogue 3: 25–35. Available online at: <>

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2008) "Would you like to dance with me, Miwa?": Gender roles and the EFL text. The School House 16/1: 2–11.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2007) Watch out! The corpus, verb usage and non-native teachers of English. Teachers Helping Teachers Proceedings 2007: 93–103. 

Whisker, Dan, Pihlaja, Stephen, and Lisa Vickerage-Goddard. (2020) Diversity and Success in Church Schools. Cambridge: Grove Books.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2022) Data Sampling and Digital Discourse. In Vasquez, C. (ed.) Research Methods for Digital Discourse Analysis. (pgs. 55-72) New York: Bloomsbury.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2021) Media. In Pihlaja, S. (ed.) Analysing Religious Discourse (pgs. 144-161). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2018) 'Discourse analysis: studying and critiquing language in use' in Seargeant, Philip, Hewings, Ann, & Stephen Pihlaja (eds.) Routledge Handbook for English Language Studies (pgs. 379-391). Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN: 9781138913455

Pihlaja, Stephen and Andreas Musloff. (2017) Language and Ideology. In Wolfram Bublitz & Christian Hoffman. Handbook of Pragmatics 11: Pragmatics of Social Media (pgs. 381-408)DOI: 10.1515/9783110431070-014

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2015) Analysing YouTube interaction: a discourse-centred approach. In Cheruvallil-Contractor, S. and Shakkour, S. (eds.) Digital Methodologies in the Sociology of Religion  (pgs. 49-58). London: Bloomsbury. ISBN: 9781472571182

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2014) The Development of 'Drama' in YouTube Discourse. In Page, R., Barton, D., Unger, J.W., and M. Zappavigna (eds.) 'Researching Language and Social Media: A Student Guide' (pg. 35-36). London: Routledge. ISBN: 9780415842006

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2021). Book review: Valerie Hobbs, An Introduction to Religious Language: Exploring Theolinguistics in Contemporary ContextsDiscourse Studies, 23(5), 692–694.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2018) [Review of Creating Church Online: Ritual, Community, and New Media by Tim Hutchings]. Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture, 7.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2017) [Review of Fire Metaphors: Discourses of Awe and Authority by Jonathan Charteris-Black]. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines, 9(1), 113 – 117.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2017). [Review of The Routledge handbook of language and identity edited by Siân Preece]. Language in Society, 46(4), 594-596. DOI: 10.1017/S0047404517000525

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2011) [Review of the book American Grace: How Religion Unites and Divides by Robert Putnam and David Campbell]. Youth and Policy 107: 116-117. Available online at: 

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2009) [Review of the book Finding Metaphor in Grammar and Usage by Gerard Steen]. Linguist List. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2021) Bearing the Burden. The Shiloh Project Blog. Available online at

Thompson, Naomi & Stephen Pihlaja. (2017) Young Muslims and exclusion – experiences of ‘othering’. Youth & Policy. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen (2016) Atheism on YouTube for the last ten years. Nonreligion and Secularity Research Network Blog. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen (6 December 2016) ‘How much faith does it take?’ Arguing for Creationism on Facebook. Science & Religion Exploring the Spectrum Blog. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen (5 December 2016) There is still confusion about what constitutes sexual violence. Times Higher Education. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2015) Freedom to offend: When is Free Speech Hate Speech? The Revealer. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2011) YouTube and the Language of Dialogue. The Parliament of the World's Religions Blog. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2009) One's loss, another's gain: The challenges of translating “I” in Japanese academic texts. The Translation Journal 13/1. Available online at:

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2008) Caught in the middle: Grammar, textbooks, and the Japanese high school. The School House 16/3: 46–55.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2008) Go your own way. The Language Teacher 32/12: 40–41.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2008) Enhancing classroom experience through a class blog. The Language Teacher, 32/4: 17–18.

Pihlaja, Stephen. (2017). Categorization. In M. Allen (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods (Vol. 4, pp. 120-121). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. DOI: 10.4135/9781483381411.n50